India is a land of diverse religions, cultures and ethnic groups consisting of multilingual folk. It has one of the oldest books in the world known as the Vedas and the oldest Veda is the Rig-Veda which was written around 3500 BC apart from other three Vedas. It contains hymns in praise of various gods and goddesses. Later from Hinduism emerged the other two main religions Buddhism and Jainism. A land rich in flora and fauna with its people exhibit an innate multi cuisine culture besides each states uniquely interwoven. Archaeologists have divided the ancient history into three Periods Paleolithic period, Mesolithic and Neolithic. Moreover the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the oldest civilizations of the Indian peninsula. Harappa and the Mohejandaro being the ancient cities found in the present Punjab & Sind states of Pakistan; Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana & Punjab states of India. Archaeologists have found a set of unique objects in almost all these cities: red pottery painted with designs in black, stone weights, seals, special beads, copper tools, and long stone blades. Some of these Indus valley artifacts can be seen in the National Museum at New Delhi.
The History of Delhi
In 1803, the British gained control of Delhi after defeating the Marathas. Since the capital of British India was Calcutta, the Mughal emperor was allowed to continue living in the palace complex in the Red Fort until the Great Rebellion of 1857. The modern city as we know it today developed only after 1911 when Delhi became the capital of British India. Delhi has a mixed population with people hailing from diverse ethnic groups. Moreover Delhi became the abode of the vast 8 million refugee population who migrated after the riots broke out in Pakistan following the partition in 1947. Over these years it has grown to be one of the nation’s most developed cities with immense trade and commerce opportunities providing jobs to both native people as well as from other states. The city is densely populated and movement at certain areas is stalled during morning and evening office rush hours. The central part of Delhi is a centre of attraction consisting monuments like Jama Masjid, one of the largest and grandest mosques in India and the Red fort built by Shah Jahan along with several dozen bazaars. One of the most popular locations is the Connaught place dating back its history of establishment to the British era, designed by Robert Tor Russell and rose in popularity, because it houses a collection of branded wear showrooms, fine dining restaurants and skyscrapers. Moreover, just near to this renowned place are the city’s wholesale markets with businesses so well entrenched that it has become one of largest leading wholesale markets attracting traders from all other states of India. The new Metro network connecting whole city as well as the Delhi NCR has made commuting convenient for Delhiites.
Partition of India
After the failure of the cabinet Mission, the Muslim league decided on mass agitation for winning its Pakistan demand. It announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day “ . On this day riots broke out in Calcutta, lasting several days and resulting in the death of thousands of people. By March 1947 violence spread to different parts of northern India. Many hundred thousand people were killed and numerous women had to face untold brutalities during the Partition. Millions of people were forced to flee their homes. Torn asunder from their homelands, they were reduced to being refugees in alien lands.
The constitution of India Preamble – to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens: Justice (Social, Economic and Political), Liberty (of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship) Equality (of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all) and Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. In Democracy people have a right to elect their leader through casting vote and the Govt. is equally responsible or accountable for every decision.